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In December 2018, China broke ground on a new facility for developing and testing components for its multi-decade science and technology program to develop fusion energy. The Comprehensive Research Facilities project is one of the interim steps toward demonstrating commercial fusion energy in an operating power plant by about 2050. This DEMO reactor will lay the basis for China’s industrial mass production of fusion power plants.

2018年12月,中國為開發核聚變能源的新設施破土動工,該設施為數十年的科學技術項目開發和測試部件, 2050年左右,核聚變發電廠將投入正式運營,綜合研究設施項目是展示商用核聚變能的中間步驟之一。 該示范反應堆將為中國大規模工業化生產核聚變電站奠定基礎。

Developing fusion energy is an urgent necessity. From a practical standpoint, to bring the world’s growing population up to a standard of living requires that energy use per capita be orders of magnitude higher than is available today to billions of people.

發展核聚變能源是當務之急。 從實際的角度來看,要使世界上不斷增長的人口達到一個生活水平,人均能源使用量比今天數十億人的能源使用量高出4個數量級。

That affirmation of the aims and needs of humanity cannot be provided by the low energy-flux dense “renewables” such as wind and solar, which were widely used centuries ago. They cannot support modern civilization. The so-called “Green New Deal,” by eliminating fossil fuels as the basic source of energy for the vast majority of the world’s population, would create a “carrying capacity” for the Earth of a population size comparable to the Middle Ages, before the use of fossil fuels, when windmills dotted the countryside. The Earth’s population did not reach one billion until approximately 1800. What will happen to the more than 6 billion “extra” people alive today, if we were to return to the technological level of the Middle Ages?

風能和太陽能等幾個世紀前廣泛使用的低能源密度"可再生能源"無法提供人類需求的能源。 他們不能支持現代文明。 所謂的"綠色新政" ,即取消化石燃料作為世界絕大多數人口基本能源來源的做法,將使地球的人口規模相當于中世紀,在使用化石燃料之前,當時農村到處都是風車。 地球人口直到大約1800年才達到10億。 如果我們回到中世紀的技術水平,那么今天活著的60多億"額外"人口將會發生什么?

Juxtaposed to the current propaganda barrage that resources are limited, and therefore “the world has too many people,” China’s accomplishment of uplifting hundreds of millions of its people out of abject poverty is stunning. To provide a fruitful future, China has chosen, in the short term, to accelerate its deployment of nuclear fission power plants, with an array of advanced fission technologies, such as high-temperature and fast reactors. For the longer term, the goal is the development of fusion energy.

再加上當前的宣傳攻勢,即資源有限,因此"世界人口太多"。中國使數億人擺脫赤貧的成就令人驚嘆。 為了提供一個富有成果的未來,中國已選擇在短期內加快部署核裂變發電廠,使用一系列先進的裂變技術,如高溫快速反應堆。 從長遠來看,我們的目標是發展核聚變能源。



Fusion, the nuclear process of the Sun and all the stars, is the combining of light atomic nuclei. Most common in today’s fusion experiments is the fusing of deuterium and tritium, isotopes of hydrogen, which produces helium, a neutron, and an immense quantity of energy.

核聚變是太陽和所有恒星的核過程,是輕原子核的結合。在今天的聚變實驗中最常見的是氫的同位素,氘和氚的核聚變,它產生氦,一個中子和巨大的能量。

Besides generating electricity, fusion and plasma technologies will revolutionize industry, chemistry, and materials processing with tools such as the “plasma torch.”

除了發電,聚變和等離子技術將使工業、化學和材料加工產生革命性的變化。

As humanity moves out from its ancestral home, fusion becomes a prerequisite for the industrial development of the Moon. In order to provide a livable environment on the airless, radiation-saturated Moon, we will have to create an Earth-like environment. Plasma-based and directed-energy mining, materials processing, and manufacturing will add to the power demand. Energy consumption per capita to live and work on the Moon will be orders of magnitude higher than that of today’s highest standard of living on the Earth.

當人類離開其祖先的家園,核聚變將成為月球工業發展的先決條件。 為了在沒有空氣、輻射飽和的月球上,提供一個適合居住的環境,我們必須創造一個類似地球的環境。 等離子體定向能源開采、材料加工和制造,將增加電力需求。 在月球上生活和工作的人均能源消耗量,將比目前地球上最高的生活水平高出4個數量級。

The move from the Moon to Mars cannot be done safely without fusion. Exposing our explorers to as much as six months of microgravity and high levels of radiation using slow chemical propulsion should not even be seriously considered. Nuclear fission propulsion can shorten the trip to a few weeks. But even that becomes unacceptable; fusion propulsion could get crews to Mars in a matter of days.

如果沒有核聚變,從月球到火星的旅程就不能安全地進行。 使用緩慢的化學推進器,將使我們的探險者暴露在的微重力和高水平的輻射之下多達六個月,這甚至不應該被認真考慮。 核裂變推進可以把行程縮短到幾個星期。 但即便如此,這也是不可接受的; 核聚變推進可以在幾天內將宇航員送上火星。

China’s stated intention is to build a manned scientific base on the Moon. One of the purposes is to mine helium-3 as a fuel for fusion power on Earth and the Moon and for fusion propulsion that will take mankind everywhere in our Solar System.

中國表示打算在月球上建立一個載人科學基地。 其中一個目的是開采氦 -3作為地球和月球核聚變動力和聚變推進的燃料,這將把人類帶到太陽系的任何地方。



The accusation that China is making economic progress only by stealing from the U.S., which has been used to justify banning the export of American advanced technology to China and banning cooperation in civilian space programs, is wearing thin. If China is poised to advance beyond the U.S. in fusion and lunar exploration, it is because China has advanced, while the United States has stood still.

指責中國只是通過竊取美國的技術來取得經濟進步,已經被用來為禁止美國向中國出口先進技術和禁止民用太空項目的合作辯護,這種說法已經不再成立了。 如果說中國準備在核聚變和月球探測方面超越美國,那是因為中國已經取得了進步,而美國卻停滯不前。

Four decades ago, following impressive progress in fusion experiments in the 1970s, the U.S. Congress passed, and President Jimmy Carter signed into law, the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980. The law called for an “Apollo-style” program to develop commercial fusion power, with the interim steps of an Engineering Test Reactor by 1990, and “the operation of a magnetic fusion demonstration plant at the turn of the twenty-first century. . . .” It noted that, “Acceleration of the current magnetic fusion program will require a doubling within seven years of the present funding level. . . .”

40年前,繼20世紀70年代核聚變實驗取得令人印象深刻的進展之后,美國國會通過了《1980年核聚變能源工程法案》 ,吉米 · 卡特總統簽署成為法律。 該法案要求一個"阿波羅式"的計劃來發展商業核聚變能源,在1990年之前建造一個工程試驗反應堆的過渡步驟,以及"在21世紀之交運行一個核聚變示范工廠... ..."該法案指出,"加速目前的核聚變計劃將需要在當前資金水平上,七年內翻一番。”

That funding never materialized, and today the U.S. magnetic fusion energy budget, in real dollars, is approximately one third of what is was when the Act was passed. Promising experiments have been shuttered and U.S. scientists told to go elsewhere, including to China, to continue their fusion research.

這筆資金從未兌現,今天美國的核聚變能源預算,以實際美元計算,大約是該法案通過時的三分之一。 有希望的實驗已經關閉,美國科學家被告知去其他地方,包括中國,繼續他們的核聚變研究。

China, on the other hand, understands that their fusion and lunar exploration programs are key science drivers for its economy and, being long-term projects, are at the frontier of science and therefore require consistent government support.

另一方面,中國明白,他們的核聚變和月球探測項目是其經濟的關鍵科學驅動力,而且作為長期項目,處于科學前沿,因此需要持續的政府支持。

The Chinese fusion energy program got a later start than those in the Soviet Union and the U.S. In an interview with this author in December 2010,[fn_2] Dr. Wan, who has been a leader in fusion research for more than 35 years at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, related that In 1973, Dr. Wan moved to Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, where a new division of the Beijing Institute of Physics was being founded. He was part of a group to set up the new Institute for Plasma Physics.

中國的核聚變能源項目比蘇聯和美國開始得晚。 在2010年12月接受本文作者的采訪中,在中國科學院等離子體物理研究所,從事核聚變研究超過35年的萬博士提到,1973年,萬博士搬到了安徽省省會合肥,北京物理研究所的一個新分所正在那里成立。 他是建立新的等離子體物理研究所小組的成員之一。

In discussing the opportunities for Chinese scientists to travel abroad and visit advanced fusion facilities in other countries, Dr. Wan said, “My personal opinion is that former Chairman Deng Xiaoping, the Chairman of our government, made the very important decision to open the door of China.”

在談到中國科學家出國訪問和參觀其他國家先進核聚變設施的機會時,萬說,"我個人認為,我們的前任主席鄧小平做出了打開中國大門的非常重要的決定。"



The renamed HT-7 tokamak (“H” for Hefei) entered service the following year, making China the fourth country in the world after Russia, France, and Japan, with a tokamak incorporating superconducting magnets. HT-7 carried out nearly 20 rounds of experiments, until it was retired in 2013. The Institute of Plasma Physics explained at that time, that most importantly, the refurbished and upgraded Russian tokamak had “nourished three generations of Chinese fusion scientists.”

第二年,重新命名的 HT-7托卡馬克投入使用,使中國成為繼俄羅斯、法國和日本之后世界上第四個擁有裝有超導磁體托卡馬克的國家。 Ht-7進行了近20輪實驗,直到2013年退役。 當時等離子體物理研究所解釋說,最重要的是,翻新升級的俄羅斯托卡馬克"培養了三代中國核聚變科學家"

While progress was being made on other machines, the Hefei scientists decided that they would make their contribution to the development of a steady-state operation of a tokamak, by designing a fully superconducting magnet tokamak. After being chosen above competing science and technology projects, EAST was approved by the central government in 1997 and received special budget support for construction. The first plasma discharge was in 2006.

在其他設備取得進展的同時,合肥的科學家們決定,他們將通過設計一個全超導磁鐵的托卡馬克裝置,為托卡馬克穩態操作的發展做出貢獻。 中央政府于1997年批準了 EAST 項目,并對項目的建設給予了專項預算支持。 在2006年實現了第一次等離子體放電。

EAST has recently reached a new milestone. In November, the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported that EAST had achieved an electron temperature of over 100 million degrees in its core plasma, or seven times greater than the interior of the Sun. To achieve that milestone, four months of experiments were carried out, and four kinds of heating power were used.

East 最近達到了一個新的里程碑。 去年11月,中國科學院報告說 EAST 的核心等離子體的電子溫度超過了1億度,是太陽內部溫度的7倍。 為了達到這個里程碑,進行了四個月的實驗,并使用了四種不同的加熱能源。

Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences 中國科學院等離子體物理研究所
In a public release issued November 13, 2018, the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported that, “Since it began operating in 2006, EAST has become a fully open test facility where the world fusion community can conduct steady-state operations and ITER-related physics research.” Experiments continue on the EAST tokamak, focused on areas of research that will be applicable to ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, now under construction in France.

中國科學院在2018年11月13日發布的一份公開報告中指出,"自2006年開始運行以來,EAST 已經成為一個完全開放的測試設施,國際核聚變界可以在這里進行穩態操作和與ITER相關的物理研究。" 在EAST 托卡馬克繼續進行實驗,重點是將適用于國際熱核實驗反應堆ITER的研究領域,這是目前正在法國建造的國際熱核實驗反應堆。

But there are numerous challenges to be overcome in applying knowledge gained with the EAST and ITER machines constructed for experimental research, to the development of commercial fusion power plants connected to the electric grid.

但是,要將 EAST 和 ITER 實驗研究機器所獲得的知識,應用到與電網相連的商用核聚變發電廠的開發中,還有許多挑戰需要克服。

China is one of the partners in ITER, along with Russia, the U.S., Japan, Europe, South Korea, and India. ITER will be the largest tokamak in the world, with the goal of producing 500 megawatts of fusion power for 400 to 600 seconds. According to the current schedule, ITER will see its first plasma experiment in 2025.

中國是 ITER 的合作伙伴之一,還有俄羅斯、美國、日本、歐洲、韓國和印度。 ITER將成為世界上最大的托卡馬克裝置,目標是在400到600秒內產生500兆瓦的聚變能量。 根據目前的計劃,ITER 將在2025年進行第一次等離子體實驗。



Dr. Wan told this writer in 2014, “more than 200 scientists and engineers got together to summarize our progress [on] the engineering conceptual design for CFETR,” which has been going through continuing iterations. They planned to prepare a more detailed design to be presented to the government, and define additional key R&D requirements.

萬博士在2014年告訴本文作者,"200多名科學家和工程師聚集在一起,總結了我們在 CFETR 工程概念設計方面的進展。"。 他們計劃準備一個更詳細的設計提交給政府,并確定額外的關鍵研發要求。

The goal of the Engineering Test Reactor is to “close the gap” between ITER and the DEMO commercial fusion power plant. This is a large step. Design work on the CFETR began in 2015, and in a presentation the following year, Dr. Wan reported that the design team hoped a construction “proposal could be uated and approved in about five years.” The plan has been to build the Engineering Test Reactor to operate in the late 2020s.

工程試驗堆的目標是"縮小"ITER 和示范商業聚變電站之間的差距。 這是一大步。 CFETR 的設計工作始于2015年,在第二年的一次演講中,萬博士報告說,設計團隊希望"建設方案能在大約五年內得到評估和批準" 計劃是在21世紀20年代末建造工程試驗反應堆。

But it became clear that there was also a gap between ITER/EAST and the Engineering Test Reactor. An R&D program to develop the technologies for the test reactor was needed.

但是很明顯,ITER/EAST 和工程測試反應堆之間也存在差距。 需要一個研發項目來開發試驗反應堆的技術。

The CFETR project was divided into two phases. In phase one, steady state operation will be a key issue, with a “modest” amount of fusion power produced, of up to 200 MW. In the second phase, the aim is for DEMO-scale power of over 1 gigawatt, with steady-state operation.

CFETR項目分為兩個階段。 在第一階段,穩定狀態的運行將是一個關鍵問題,即產生"適度的聚變功率,最高可達200兆瓦。 在第二階段,目標是使示范核聚變堆-規模功率超過10億瓦,并穩定運行。

And so ground was broken in December to build the Comprehensive Research Facilities in Support of the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), to help fill the technology gaps.

因此,去年12月中國破土動工,建造了支持中國聚變工程試驗堆的綜合研究設施,以幫助填補技術差距。

The Research Facilities involves ten Chinese fusion institutes and universities under the leadership of the Institute of Plasma Physics, which describes the Research Facilities, when completed, as “a comprehensive research platform” that will test reactor-scalable superconducting magnets, reactor heating systems, remote handling and diagnostic technology, and “provide strong support for cutting-edge cross-disciplinary fields, such as energy, information, health, and so on.” It is the first project in the future Hefei National Comprehensive Science Center, which will have other science and technology research facilities.

在中國等離子體物理研究所領導下,包括10所核聚變研究所和大學參與這些研究設施。等離子體物理研究所將這些研究設施描述為一個"綜合研究平臺",將測試反應堆的可擴展超導磁體、反應堆加熱系統、遠程處理和診斷技術,并"為能源、信息、健康等前沿跨學科領域提供有力支持。" 這是未來合肥國家綜合科學研究中心的第一個項目,該中心將擁有其他科研設施。



If the tokamak is successful, you can use the fusion neutrons to irradiate uranium-238 into plutonium-239 for fission fuel. Also, you can use the neutron source to transmute the waste. To do this, you don’t need a pure fusion power reactor, which still has the materials problem. If you use the hybrid concept, you can use a little pure fusion in a cold plasma. . . . You can breed fission material, and treat the fission waste.[fn_3]

如果托卡馬克裝置成功了,你可以用聚變中子,把鈾238放射到钚239中,作為裂變燃料。 此外,你可以使用中子源來轉化廢料。 要做到這一點,你不需要一個純核聚變反應堆,核聚變仍然存在材料問題。 如果你使用混合概念,你可以在冷等離子體中使用一點純核聚變。 你可以培育裂變材料,處理裂變廢料。

This benefits both technologies, Dr. Wan said. “For fusion, you can promote the development of fusion technology, of materials development, so you can get an early application for fusion, while you take care of breeding the fuel and transmute the waste from fission.”

這對兩種技術都有好處,萬博士說。 "對于核聚變,你可以促進核聚變技術和材料開發的發展,這樣你就可以早期應用核聚變技術,同時你還可以負責核燃料的培育和核裂變廢料的轉化。"

In 1953, Dr. Edward Teller and a team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California produced the first proposal in the United States for a hybrid reactor, using a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor’s neutrons to produce fissile plutonium from uranium-238.[fn_4] But at that early stage, the scientists were uncertain that creating controlled fusion was going to be successful.

1953年,愛德華·泰勒博士和加利福尼亞州勞倫斯利福摩爾國家實驗室的一個團隊在美國提出了第一個混合反應堆的建議,利用氘氚聚變反應堆的中子從鈾 -238中生產可裂變的钚。 但在早期階段,科學家們并不確定創造受控核聚變是否會成功。



China—which earlier this year became the first nation to land a spacecraft on the far side of the Moon—plans to establish a lunar base for scientific exploration and to exploit the Moon’s resources. Through the use of lunar helium-3 for fusion fuel, the economy of the Earth will be integrated with its celestial neighbor. In the course of living on the Moon, mankind will develop fusion and new technologies to enable humans to further explore our Solar System and beyond.

今年早些時候,中國成為第一個在月球背面著陸探測器的國家。中國計劃建立一個月球基地,用于科學探索和開發月球資源。 通過使用月球的氦 -3作為聚變燃料,地球的經濟結構將與其天上的鄰居融為一體。 在月球生活的過程中,人類將發展核聚變和新技術,使人類能夠進一步探索我們的太陽系以及更遠的地方。

The best way to achieve breakthroughs in each and all of the kinds of applications of technological progress over the coming fifty years or so, is to create a mission-oriented, crash-program task-force, assigned to developing all of the technologies required for beginning the permanent colonization of Mars by some preassigned target-date,

在未來50年左右的時間里,要在技術進步的各種應用中取得突破,最好的辦法就是建立一個以任務為導向、速成計劃的特別工作組,負責開發所有必要的技術,以便在某個預先指定的目標日期,開始建立永久性火星殖民。

The recent directive by President Donald Trump to NASA to return U.S. astronauts to the Moon by 2024, and to establish a permanent presence no more than five years after that, with the explicit, stated intention that this is a precursor of manned exploration and colonization of Mars, defines what could—and must—become a crash program approach toward manned space exploration. This, in turn, will redefine and refocus both the urgency and the role of fusion energy development for the human race as a whole. As defined by LaRouche, scientific progress is to be pursued not by a timetable dictated by budgetary constraints, nor as separate specialized arenas of individual programs—but rather by the driving necessity of a “grand-scale crash-program mission-assignment,” such as was carried out in the 1961-1969 John F. Kennedy Apollo Program.

最近,美國總統唐納德 · 特朗普向美國宇航局發出指令,要求美國宇航員在2024年前重返月球,并在5年后建立永久存在,并明確表示這是載人探索和火星殖民探索的先驅,這一指令定義了什么可以---- 也必須---- 成為載人空間探索的緊急方案。 反過來,這將重新定義和重新聚焦,核聚變能源開發對整個人類的緊迫性和作用。

Such a mission-assignment requires, in turn, the cooperation and the pooled resources of China, the United States, Russia and all other willing partners to accomplish this goal. It will define other, successive urgent goals. It will also place the rapid development of fusion power—as an “Apollo-style” crash program—on the necessary international footing.

這樣的任務分配反過來又需要中國、美國、俄羅斯和所有其他愿意合作的伙伴的合作和資源來實現這一目標。