原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.herwqr.shop 翻譯:北海西銅 轉載請注明出處

More Chinese scientists in America are going back home
Returning researchers boost China’s scientific impact

正有越來越多的在美中國科學家歸國
而回歸的科研人才正大大提升中國的科技影響力



A growing number of Chinese scientists working in the United States and other parts of the world are returning to their homeland, enhancing China’s research productivity.

越來越多在美國和世界其他國家工作的中國科學家正在返回祖國,而這一浪潮正不斷提升中國的“科研生產率”(research productivity)。

In a new study, researchers found that more than 16,000 researchers have returned to China from other countries since that nation has opened up to international engagement. More than 4,500 left the United States for China in 2017 – nearly double the number who left in 2010.

在一項最新的研究中,調研人員發現,自從中國向世界開放以來,已經有16000多名科研人員從國外返回中國。僅2017年一年,離開美國返回中國的人就達到4500人,幾乎是2010年這一數字的兩倍。

These foreign-trained researchers are helping grow China into a scientific powerhouse, said Caroline Wagner, co-author of the study and associate professor in the John Glenn College of Public Affairs at The Ohio State University.

該研究報告的合著者,俄亥俄州立大學(The Ohio State University)約翰·格倫公共事務學院(The John Glenn College of Public Affairs)副教授卡羅琳·瓦格納(Caroline Wagner)指出,這些受過外國培訓的科研人員,正在幫助中國成為一個最新科技成果的主要發源地。

“In our lifetime, China has joined the global scientific community to become world-class in a number of critical fields, such as AI and materials science,” Wagner said.
“As more of their researchers return home, that rise is going to continue.”

瓦格納說:“我們這一生的時間里,見證了中國從加入全球科學界,到在人工智能、材料科學等諸多關鍵領域成為世界一流的整個過程。而隨著更多科研人員回歸中國,這一上升趨勢還會繼續。”

The study was published online this month in the journal Science and Public Policy.

該研究報告于本月(注:19年12月)發表在《科學與公共政策》雜志(Science and Public Policy,英國牛津的一個期刊)的網絡版上。

For the study, the researchers made use of a scientific publisher’s (Elsevier) database that allowed them to track researchers based on their publications in scientific journals.

制作這份報告的研究人員,利用了一個科學類期刊數據庫(Elsevier),該數據庫讓他們能根據研究人員在各大科學刊物上發表的論文來追蹤他們。



Overall, Wagner and her colleagues found that 12 percent of studies published by researchers in China were by those who had worked in other countries – and that is probably an underestimation, she said.

總的來說,瓦格納和她的同事們發現,中國科研人員發布的所有研究成果中,有12%是由有過在他國工作經歷的人完成的——而這一數字還很有可能被低估了。

More importantly, those who worked abroad and returned to China published more high-impact research than scientists who didn’t work abroad, according to the study.

更重要的是,該研究還表明,那些在國外工作過并返回中國的科學家所發表的具有重要影響力的研究,比那些沒有出過國的科學家所發表的多。

“Once they go home, those who worked elsewhere are more productive at the international level than people who stayed in China,” she said.

瓦格納指出:“那些在國外工作過的科研人員回國后,表現出了比其他人更高的國際水平的工作效率。”

One reason for the success of the mobile researchers was that they published more studies with foreign-based collaborators. In previous research, Wagner has found that the more open a country is to cross-country scientific cooperation, the stronger its scientific impact.

遷徙性科研人員之所以能成功發表更多研究成果的一個原因,是他們能更多地參與國際合作。瓦格納在以往的其它研究中已經發現,一個國家對跨國科學合作越開放,其科學影響力就越強。

That’s also one reason why China is fine with the fact that many of its scientists stay in the United States, Europe or elsewhere.
“Chinese leaders value the connections. It is a way to create lixages with the worldwide scientific community,” she said.

這也是為什么中國并不太抵觸很多中國科學家留在美國、歐洲或其他國家的原因之一。瓦格納指出:“中國領導層十分珍視這些人際網絡,這也是一種與世界科學界加強聯系的途徑。”

A variety of indicators suggest that China’s science and technology capabilities are on a sharply rising trajectory. For one, China’s spending on research and development as tracked by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has increased faster than overall economic growth in the country.

各種指標表明,中國的科技實力正處在一條急劇揚升的軌道。比如,經濟合作與發展組織(OECD)追蹤的中國研發支出增長速度,就已經超過了中國的整體經濟增速。

And by one measure, China ranked second in the world in the number of papers published in indexed scientific journals in 2017.

另有一項指標顯示,2017年,中國在指標性科技期刊上發表的論文數量也已經躍居世界第二。

Wagner said that returning scientists have helped build China’s scientific community, which in turns attracts more of the country’s scientists to come back home. But she said it is still in America’s best interest to try to retain as many of China’s best scholars as possible, and be welcoming to those who visit.

瓦格納表示,歸國的科學家們還幫助中國建立起了自己的科技社群,這反過來又吸引了更多中國科學家回國。但她也指出,盡可能多地留住最頂尖的中國學者、并歡迎新來者,仍然符合美國的最大利益:

“The U.S. has retained its dynamism in science and technology because excellent scientists from other countries come here,” she said.
“If we lose that attraction, if we discourage people from coming here, it will take a toll on the U.S. scientific system.”

“正是由于來自其他國家的優秀科技工作者,美國的科學技術才能保持活力。如果我們失去了這種吸引力,如果我們不再能鼓勵人們不斷前來,這將對美國的整個科學體系造成傷害。”